Monday, November 10, 2008

UPDATE 1-Indonesia says plans coal buffer stock

[ Reuters ]

JAKARTA, Nov 10 (Reuters) - Indonesia, the world's top exporter of thermal coal, plans to put in place a coal buffer stock to secure supplies for domestic power plants, the energy minister said on Monday.

Coal for the buffer stock would be procured by revising a policy so that producers pay royalties using coal supplies, Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro said.

The policy is expected to affect all coal producers, including companies such as PT Bumi Resources Tbk (BUMI.JK: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz), Indonesia's largest coal producer and PT Indo Tambangraya Megah (ITMG.JK: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz), a unit of Thailand's Banpu PCL BANP.BK.

"We are considering developing coal buffer stocks and PLN will be authorised to manage it so that when there's a supply problem, it won't cause a panic," Yusgiantoro said, referring to state electricity firm PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara.

The government has said earlier this year that it was looking at swapping cash royalties for coal stocks to ensure domestic supply.

Under the current scheme, the government gets 13.5 percent of miners' total coal supplies. Miners have to return the proceeds from the sale of this coal back to the government.

"We will be able to apply the buffer stock once the policy on swapping cash royalties into coal supplies is completed," Bambang Setiawan, director general of mining, geothermal and coal at the ministry, said at the same news conference.

The energy minister said Indonesia may be able to get around 30 million tonnes of coal for buffer stocks under the plan.

Disruptions in coal shipments partly due to bad weather caused blackouts in Java and Bali, the two main commercial islands, earlier this year.

Last week, PLN was quoted by the state Antara news agency as saying it planned to import coal from Australia to increase stocks ahead of the rainy season due to higher local prices and dwindling stocks at its four major power plants.

But the firm later denied the plan and said it would focus on seeking supplies from domestic producer.

According to Setiawan, most domestic power plants currently use sub-bituminous coal with low heating value and the new policy should enable the country to have better quality coal by blending different kinds of coal quality.

PLN has said it would need more than 40 million tonnes of coal in 2009 up from about 35 million tonnes this year as three new coal-fired power plants start operating.

Indonesia coal output is expected rising to 240 million tonnes in 2009 from 235 million tonnes this year, according to date from the industry-backed Indonesian Coal Mining Association. (Reporting by Fitri Wulandari and Muklis Ali; Editing by Ed Davies)

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

UI to host science Olympics

[ jakartapost ]

DEPOK: Director General of Higher Education Fasli Jalal will open the inaugural Olympics of Science at the University of Indonesia (UI) on Monday.

About 3,000 students from 38 state and 21 private universities across the country will sit elimination tests held simultaneously in 31 provinces to narrow down a shorlist of 250 competitors.

The finalists will gather at UI on Dec. 5-9 to compete for the top honor. Sponsored by state oil company Pertamina, the event offers Rp 135 million worth of scholarships to the winners.

The national competition is restricted to physics, mathematics and chemistry students who have never participated in international Olympic events. -- JP

Rich in geothermal fields? Then exploit them

[ japan times ]

Special to The Japan Times

SINGAPORE — In their quest for energy security, Indonesia and the Philippines are planning to develop nuclear power to buttress a key part of their electricity generating systems. This provides the near constant, or base load, electricity needed by industries and households. However, the possibility of accidents and deadly radioactive releases from nuclear power plants — particularly those in countries like the Indonesia and the Philippines, which are peppered with active volcanoes and subject to earthquakes and tsunami — worries neighboring nations in Southeast Asia as well as Australia.

Such plants would be sited on coastlines so they can draw water from the sea for cooling purposes. The problems even Japan, with its advanced technology and management skills, has encountered with the seismic safety of its nuclear power industry during major earthquakes in recent years has heightened this anxiety.

Yet the very basis for these safety concerns in Southeast Asia points to a solution. Instead of going nuclear with its risks, Indonesia and the Philippines could expand what they are already doing: tapping the virtually limitless heat from deep underground to power their economies. The two Southeast Asian countries are the world's biggest geothermal electricity producers, after the United States.

This form of renewable energy supplies just over 23 percent of the electricity generated in the Philippines and 5 percent in Indonesia. It has reliability advantages over solar and wind power, mainly because geothermal fields do not stop producing energy at night after the sun sets, or when the wind ceases to blow or gusts too hard.

Coming from the Earth's molten core and from the decay of naturally occurring elements such as uranium and thorium, the heat energy in the uppermost 10 km of the planet's crust is vast — 50,000 times greater than the energy content of all known oil and natural gas resources. Among countries with the richest geothermal resources are those that lie atop the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire, a hot geologic zone that encircles the Pacific Ocean. They include the western U.S., Canada, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Russia, Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Zealand.

On a worldwide basis, hydropower is by far the most important renewable energy source, accounting for 19 percent of global electricity production. Wind generates just one percent of world power. While both geothermal and solar energy each provide well under one percent, they have the potential to supply much more. Indonesia is the world's third biggest producer of geothermal electricity. Yet it supplies barely 1,000 megawatts of an estimated 27,000 MW potential from its geothermal resources, one of the world's largest.

It plans to develop new capacity of nearly 7,000 MW over the next decade, equivalent to 10 nuclear power plants and equal to nearly 30 percent of its current electricity-generating capacity from all sources. The Philippines, the No. 2 producer after the U.S., aims to increase its installed geothermal capacity by 2013 by over 60 percent, to just over 3,100 MW.

But first impediments in both countries to expanded geothermal investment must be removed. A presidential decree in Indonesia earlier this month (October) offered tax incentives for expanded production from existing fields and development of new resources. However, political bickering in the Philippines has blocked passage of a renewable energy bill to provide greater incentives and clarity.

In both countries, official red tape, difficulty in gaining access to public and private land for development projects, and disputes over the price offered for geothermal electricity going into state-owned power supply networks has slowed progress.

Now the global squeeze on credit and the recent fall in prices of competing fossil fuel energy sources like coal, oil and natural gas, are putting additional barriers in way of geothermal expansion.

Still, the potential for growth remains promising. According to a recent survey by the Earth Policy Institute in Washington, geothermal energy is being tapped in 24 countries, five of which used it to produce 15 per cent or more of their total electricity.

In the first half of this year, worldwide-installed geothermal power capacity passed 10,000 MW and now produces enough electricity to meet the needs of 60 million people, roughly the population of Britain. By 2010, capacity could increase to 13,500 MW in 46 countries.

Most geothermal plants in operation around the world tap into underground pockets of high-temperature water or steam to drive steam turbines. These ventures need high capital investment for exploration, drilling and plant and pipeline construction, compared to coal or gas-fired electricity plants. However, operation and maintenance costs are relatively low.

Now, however, new geothermal technologies enable electricity to be generated at much lower temperatures. They use liquids with lower boiling points than water in heat exchange systems, opening a vast new frontier for geothermal power.

Michael Richardson, a former Asia editor of the International Herald Tribune, is an energy and security specialist at the Institute of South East Asian Studies in Singapore.

Indonesia Power Report Q3 2008

[ pr-inside ]

The new Indonesia Power Report from BMI forecasts that the country will account for 2.08% of Asia Pacific regional power generation by 2012, with an increasing generation shortfall that provides a growing import requirement. BMI’s Asia Pacific power generation estimate for 2007 is 6,865 terawatt hours (twh), representing an increase of 9.6% over the previous year. We are forecasting an increase in regional generation to 9,370twh by 2012, representing a rise of 36.5%. Asia Pacific thermal power generation in 2007 is estimated by BMI at 5,431twh, accounting for 79.1% of the total electricity supplied in the region.

Our forecast for 2012 is 7,104twh, implying 46.6% growth that reduces the market share of thermal generation to 75.8% – thanks partly to environmental concerns that should be promoting renewables, hydro-electricity and nuclear generation. Indonesia’s thermal generation in 2007 was 135twh, or 2.49% of the regional total. By 2012, the country is expected to account for 2.52% of thermal generation. For Indonesia, oil is the dominant fuel, accounting for 47.5% of 2007 primary energy demand (PED), followed by gas at 26.5%, coal at 24.3% and hydro with a 1.7% share of PED. Regional energy demand is forecast to reach 4,830mn tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) by 2012, representing 37.3% growth over the period.

Indonesia’s 2007 market share of 3.10% is set to fall to 2.98% by 2012. Indonesia is moving ahead slowly with controversial plans to build its first nuclear power plant, which could be operational by 2017. Indonesia is now ranked sixth, just behind Malaysia in BMI’s updated Power Business Environment rating, reflecting to its low level of energy import dependence and healthy power consumption growth prospects. Several country risk factors offset some of the industry strength, and the country may struggle to keep Philippines and Thailand at bay over the longer term. BMI is now forecasting Indonesian real GDP growth averaging 5.83% per annum between 2007 and 2012, with a 2008 forecast of 6.10%. Population is expected to expand from 231.6mn to 245.3mn over the period, with GDP per capita and electricity consumption per capita both forecast to increase significantly.

The country’s power consumption is expected to increase from 173twh in 2007 to 282twh by the end of the forecast period, leaving a shortfall in generation rising from an estimated 26twh in 2007 to 87twh in 2012, assuming 7.1% annual growth in generating capacity. Between 2007 and 2018, we are forecasting an increase in Indonesian electricity generation of 90.7%, which is among the highest for the Asia Pacific region. This equates to 35.1% in the 2013-2018 period, up from 32.6% in 2007-12. PED growth is set to fall from 25.8% in 2007-12 to 24.0%, representing 63.8% for the entire forecast period. An increase of 168% in hydro-power use during 2007-18 is a key element of generation growth. Thermal power generation is forecast to rise by 88% between 2007 and 2018. More details of the long-term BMI power forecasts can be found in the appendix of this report.

Mike King

Indonesia biofuel policy to reduce palm oil exports

[ business standard ]

Exports of palm oil from Indonesia, the largest producer, may decline by as much as 1.5 million metric tonnes a year after the nation made the use of renewable energy mandatory, a government official said.

“In relation to the mandatory policy for bio-energy issued last month, we see that the use of agricultural products for alternative energy will increase,” Bayu Krisnamurthi, a deputy to Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs Boediono, said on Wednesday in Jakarta. “This will cut our exports” of palm oil.

A fall in supplies from Indonesia, the top producer of the tropical oil, may help support prices that slumped to a two-year low this week on concern slowing global economic growth will dent demand for commodities.

The mandate is “positive for the week” for palm oil prices, said Tan Ting Min, a plantation analyst at Credit Suisse Group in Kuala Lumpur.

Indonesia said September 26 diesel used for transportation must have minimum 1 per cent biodiesel starting this month. The mix was set at 2.5 per cent for industrial users. The nation also mandated 1 per cent bio-ethanol mix for cars using subsidised fuel starting 2009, while industries using gasoline must ensure 5 per cent of the fuel has bioethanol.

Fossil Fuels: Palm oil, with the highest calorific value of any vegetable oil, can be added to diesel to stretch supplies of fossil fuels. Brazil mandates the use of ethanol, made from sugar cane, in cars while the US uses corn to make ethanol.

Indonesia’s biofuel industry can produce between 1.3 million tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes annually, said Krisnamurthi. Capacity may double to 3 million tonnes by 2010, he said.

The country’s palm oil output will be more than 19 million tonnes next year and exceed 20 million in 2010, he added. Food and chemicals industry may use 4.5 million tonnes this year and next, and 5 million tonnes in 2010, Krisnamurthi said.

Palm oil for December delivery is trading at 1,819 ringgit ($520) a ton on the Malaysia Derivatives Exchange at 4:14 pm local time. Prices have dived 60 per cent from a peak in March.

Futures may average 2,900 ringgit a tonne in 2009, compared with 3,226 ringgit so far this year, Credit Suisse’s Tan said.

Indonesia May Cut Tin Output If Price Keeps Dropping

[ Bloomberg ]

By Naila Firdausi and Bambang Dwi Djanuarto

Nov. 3 (Bloomberg) -- Indonesia, the world's largest tin exporter, may reduce production if the price extends its decline, an Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry official said.

``Output will be less than 90,000 tons this year,'' Bambang Setiawan, director general of coal and mineral resources, said in an interview today. ``If the price keeps tumbling we'll talk with local governments and producers on their output quotas and we'll have to tighten them.''

Tin, mostly used in soldering and food cans, has slumped 46 percent from a record $25,500 a ton in May on concern the global credit crisis would push the world economy into recession and reduce demand for commodities. The price slump will probably curb investment and delay new projects, Peter Kettle, research manager of ITRI Ltd., a producer-funded group, said Oct. 29.

``It will definitely have some impact if Indonesia cuts output as they and China are the biggest producers,'' said Pang Ying, an analyst at Shenzhen Rongtuo Trading Co. ``The market will be watching Chinese supplies closely. If these drop too, we could see prices bucking the general downtrend.''

PT Timah, Indonesia's largest tin mining company, may produce 45,000 tons of refined tin this year, while PT Koba Tin, a unit of Malaysia Smelting Corp., may make ``less than 10,000 tons,'' Setiawan said in Jakarta.

Timah Corporate Secretary Abrun Abubakar said Oct. 22 that the company may produce 45,000 tons. That was 6.3 percent down from an August forecast by company president Wachid Usman.

Lower Production

Koba Tin said Oct. 21 full-year production was already scheduled to be half the original target of 15,000 tons. In the 10 months through October, output totaled 6,000 tons, according to company president Kamardin Md Top.

Indonesia's small tin smelters have already agreed to halt production to help stem the price decline. All nine members of PT Bangka Belitung Timah Sejahtera, a group set up in 2007, agreed to stop output, Ismiryadi, a member of the board of commissioners, said in an interview Oct. 21. The group produces about 3,000 metric tons a month.

``Today some of the once probable projects are now only possible, while many previously possible projects have already been postponed or canceled,'' ITRI's Kettle said at a conference in Istanbul last week.

The metal is heading for a third consecutive year of supply shortfall, Kettle said. The deficit may reach 20,700 tons, compared with 2,500 tons last year, he said. That would be more than five times larger than existing stockpiles monitored by the London Metal Exchange.

Tin for three months delivery advanced 2.5 percent to $13,732 a ton on the London Metal Exchange today.

Thursday, August 7, 2008

Greenpeace mendesak AMEM memulai Revolusi Energi dengan target 40% pada tahun 2020

[ Greenpeace ]

Bangkok, Thailand — Greenpeace mendesak menteri energi di Negara-Negara ASEAN menunjukkan kepemimpinan mereka dan tekad kuat untuk menciptakan masa depan dengan berlandaskan sumber-sumber energi terbarukan yang bersih. Bukan membuat jebakan untuk negaranya pada energi nuklir dan energi fosil yang kotor, berbahaya dan mahal. Desakan ini Greenpeace sampaikan pada pertemuan dengan media yang di adakan tepat saat pertemuan Menteri Energi Negara-negara Asean di Bangkok, Thailand.
Naiknya harga minyak dan batu bara menjadi agenda utama pada pertemuan tersebut dalam mensiasati ketahanan energi di ASEAN. Tetapi pada pertemuan tersebut para menteri energi ini bukan membahas solusi dengan menerapkan energi terbarukan tetapi merencanakan peningkatan energi batu bara dan energi nuklir.

Negara-negara ASEAN yang sedang berkembang harus belajar dari sejarah dan berusaha menurunkan emisi karbondioksida dengan memilih sumber-sumber energi yang terbarukan dan mendorong efisiensi energi pada saat negara-negara tersebut mengkonsumsi energi secara terus menerus dan bertambah seiring dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca akan semakin meningkat jika memilih teknologi energi yang salah. 

Negara-negara Asia Tenggara secara kolektif menduduki peringkat ketiga didunia sebagai penyumbang emisi CO2 di antara negara berkembang lainnya setelah Cina dan India. Masa depan perkembangan energi terbarukan di Asia Tenggara di tentukan pilihan-pilihan politik yang diambil oleh pemerintah masih-masih serta ASEAN. Sebagai tuan rumah negara-negara yang paling rentan terhadap dampak perubahan iklim, ASEAN harus mengeluarkan kebijakan-kebijakan untuk iklim dan energi yang tepat, Keputusan yang diambil dalam beberapa tahun ke depan akan memiliki dampak yang berkepanjangan.
Tahun lalu ASEAN membuat keputusan bahwa permasalahan perubahaan iklim dan energi sebagai salah satu masalah utama dan keputusan ASEAN untuk meningkatkan energi bersih untuk kebutuhan energi listrik di kawasan ASEAN hingga 10% pada tahun 2010 adalah keputusan yang Greenpeace sambut baik. Tetapi keputusan tahun lalu hanya sekedar keputusan di atas kertas. ASEAN Gagal  mencapai target-target tersebut secara nyata.

Negara-negara ASEAN seperti Indonesia, Thailand dan Vietnam telah termakan bujuk rayu industri nuklir dan telah membuat boom waktu untuk seluruh penduduknya. Hal ini bukan cara yang tepat untuk mecapai ketahanan energi dan mengatasi permasalahaan perubahaan iklim. Besarnya biaya dalam pembangunan PLTN dan blom adanya jalan keluar untuk pembuangan limbah yang di hasilkan PLTN. Nuklir bukan lah suatu solusi untuk mengurangi perubahaan iklim

Desakan Greenpeace pada pemerintah negara-negara ASEAN untuk memimpin energi terbarukan serta memulai kebijakan untuk mengurangi emisi CO2. Berikut tahap-tahap yang harus dilakukan para pemimpin negara ASEAN :

  • Memenuhi target regional untuk menggunakan 10% sumber energi terbarukan pada tahun 2010
  • Menetapkan target 40% penggunaan energi terbarukan pada tahun 2020
  • Membuka mekanisme pendukung Seperti akses jaringan dan pilihan yang baik untuk energi bersih serta dukungan untuk usaha pembangkit listrik  yang mengembangkan energi terbarukan.
  • Melakukan standar energi efisiensi yang ketat bagi peralatan elektronik, lampu, gedung serta kendaraan
  • Meninggalkan cerita Batu bara bersih dan nuklir adalah sebuah solusi dari perubahaan iklim

— Arie Rostika Utami

Thursday, June 12, 2008

Negara-Negara D8 Sepakat Proyek Listrik Pedesaan Gunakan Energi Alternatif

[ ESDM ]

JAKARTA. Seluruh delegasi yang hadir dalam pertemuan Working Group on Energy di Kairo (1-2/6) menyetujui pembentukan Proyek Listrik Pedesaan yang akan diterapkan diseluruh anggota D-8 dengan menggunakan energi baru terbarukan, solar, angin dan mini hidro. Delegasi Indonesia mengusulkan proyek ini menjadi flagship project D-8, mengingat semua negara memiliki kepentingan yang sama akan energi pedesaan.

Hadir dalam pertemuan tersebut negara-negara anggota D-8, Sekretaris Jenderal D-8 dan perwakilan Islamic Development Bank.Disamping itu, disepakati pula pembentukan Sekretariat WG on Energy, Task Force on Renewable Energy, Working Group on Mining and Minerals dan pembentukan Forum Bisnis Energi negara-negara D-8.

Pemerintah Indonesia dan Turki sepakat untuk mengembangkan pemanfaatan langsung energi panas bumi di Indonesia. Menurut Staf Ahli Menteri Bidang Informasi dan Komunikasi, R. Sukhyar yang menyertai delegasi Indonesia. Turki Merupakan salah satu negara yang maju dalam penerapan teknologi dan pengusahaan langsung energi panasbumi.

Kerjasama ini akan segera ditindak lanjuti Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral dan para stakeholder yang bergerak di industri panasbumi dengan melakukan kunjungan ke Turki.Working Group on Mining and Minerals yang juga merupakan usulan dari delegasi Indonesia akan segera diajukan pada pertemuan tingkat Menteri D-8 untuk mendapatkan persetujuan. Pemerintah Indonesia menyatakan kesediaannya menjadi tuan rumah perdana WG dimaksud.

Pemerintah Tetapkan Acuan Tarif Listrik Panas Bumi

[ ESDM ]

JAKARTA - Pemerintah menetapkan biaya pokok penyediaan (BPP) sebagai acuan tarif tenaga listrik dari panas bumi untuk tahun 2008.

Direktur Jenderal Listrik dan Pemanfaatan Energi (LPE) J Purwono mengatakan, besaran tersebut diajukan PT PLN (Persero). "Jadi tidak merugikan," ujarnya di Jakarta kemarin. Purwono menambahkan, BPP ini juga dapat dijadikan acuan untuk penetapan tarif listrik dari bahan bakar energi terbarukan lainnya, seperti bahan bakar nabati (BBN), hydro, dan Banyu.

Di samping itu, lanjut dia, BPP tersebut juga berlaku bagi pengusahaan pembangkit listrik tenaga energi terbarukan skala menengah dan pembangkit lainnya berskala kecil. Purwono menjelaskan, harga BPP itu tercantum dalam lampiran Peraturan Menteri ESDM No 269-12/26/600.3/2008 tentang BPP Tenaga Listrik Tahun 2008 yang disediakan PT PLN tertanggal 9 Juni 2008.

BPP itu terdiri atas tegangan tinggi (TT), menengah (TM), dan rendah (TR). Setiap wilayah, kata dia, biaya yang ditetapkan berbeda-beda. Untuk sistem Jawa-Madura-Bali mencapai BPP untuk TT mencapai Rp783 per Kwh. Sementara untuk TM antara Rp849-Rp859 per Kwh, dan TR Rp1.011-Rp1.030 per Kwh.

(sumber: Seputar Indonesia)

Wednesday, June 4, 2008

Indonesian 'wonder fuel' just plain diesel: report

[ AFP ]

JAKARTA (AFP) — A controversial plan backed by Indonesia's president to turn water into cheap and limitless energy has run aground, with tests showing the wonder fuel is just plain diesel, a report said Tuesday.

Government scientists have revealed that tests on the so-called "Blue Energy," purportedly made from water, showed it was diesel from state oil company Pertamina, the Jakarta Post reported.

"Blue Energy is nothing extraordinary as it is just a form of hydrocarbon or fossil fuel," Research and Technology Minister Kusmayanto Kadiman was quoted as saying.

The energy "breakthrough" grabbed headlines in Indonesia after its inventor, Joko Suprapto, managed to convince President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono he could separate hydrogen from water, turning it into diesel.

The plan was exhibited at the United Nations climate change conference in Bali in December with the president's blessing.

Suprapto went missing last month but was found in a hospital in West Java suffering from heart problems after Yudhoyono, fearing he had been abducted by jealous oil barons, ordered a police search, Tempo news magazine reported.

Monday, June 2, 2008

Fuel subsidies hurting Indonesia: Pertamina executive

[ AFP ]

SINGAPORE (AFP) — Fuel subsidies in Indonesia are hurting the economy, sucking away precious funds which could have been better used in other areas such as health and economic development, an Indonesian oil executive said Sunday.

The country cannot go on indefinitely subsidising fuel and bold decisions are needed from the government to address the situation, said Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, a senior vice president with state-owned Pertamina.

"When you continue subsidising oil, there will be some distortion," he said.

"I think the government will have to start making some bold efforts to rectify this, otherwise this is going to continue and perhaps even get worse because of the distortion in the market," he said.

Prawiraatmadja, who was speaking at an Asia security summit in Singapore, said his comments do not reflect that of his employer.

The Indonesian government recently hiked fuel prices by almost 30 percent in what it said was a move to save the budget from the swelling cost of its multi-billion-dollar subsidy scheme on the back of soaring global oil prices,

Fuel prices have been heavily subsidied in Indonesia and since the fuel hike was announced, protests have occurred almost daily across the country.

Friday, May 30, 2008

Controversial Blue Energy: President Summons Team

TEMPO Interactive, Yogyakarta: Scientists from Gadjah Mada University (UGM) rejected the idea of Blue Energy by Joko Suprapto and will meet President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in the state palace today. They will give a scientific explanation to the President about Blue Energy.

“It is scheduled at 1pm today,” said head of the Energy Study Center, Sudiartono, at his office yesterday. He will attend the meeting together with UGM rector, Prof. Sudjarwadi; head of Electro- Engineering Department of UGM, Tumiran; and UGM's researcher on energy technology and the nuclear reactor, Dr. Ing. Sihana.

Sudiartono met Joko Suprapto in December 2005 when Joko asked for financial support regarding blue energy development amounting to Rp3 billion to UGM's President Prof. Sofian Effendi. The project was thought to be a deception.

“I will explain this to the President,” he said.

Tumiran argued that water does not have a chemical element to be transformed into oil. Water's chemical composition is hydrogen and oxygen (H2O), while oil contains carbon (C ) and hydrogen. “It is nearly impossible to have water as an energy source,” he said.

Blue energy became controversial as it involves high rank officials. Presidential special staff, Heru Lelono, has been appointed commissioner of the company that will develop the blue energy. Heru said President Yudhoyono requests the project to be continued. “This is a logical finding, supported by oil expertise,” he told Tempo last Sunday.

State Minister of Research and Technology, Kusmayanto Kadiman, said that he does not know much about this project. He suggested to Tempo to contact Joko Suprapto and his partners that have an agreement with investors.

Director for Technology Development for Energy Resources at the Agency for the Assessment & Application of Technology (BPPT), Unggul Prayitno, said the Blue Energy concept claiming water as an alternative for oil substitution in a large amount is dubious.


Monday, May 12, 2008

Emisi Antara Roda Dua dan Roda Empat

Saya bingung dengan kalkulasi rumit, terlalu merinci, sehingga (mungkin) lupa melihat dalam frame yang lebih besar.
Sepemahaman saya, kalkulasi atas emisi dihitung dari kinerja mesin, berapa banyak emisi yang dihasilkan untuk setiap liter, setiap menit, setiap unit atau lain sebagainya. Kalau begitu kita coba kalkulasi dengan logika sederhana.

Berapa liter pemakaian Bensin perhari untuk satu unit mobil? kita sebut X
Berapa liter pemakaian Bensin perhari untuk satu unit kendaraan bermotor (kita pakai 2T)? kita sebut Y

Logika realita X > Y
Mana mau orang berdinas mobil diberi ongkos bensin motor

Kemudian berapa banyak ruang/tempat yang diambil oleh satu unit mobil? kita sebut X
dan Berapa banyak ruang/tempat yang diambil oleh satu unit motor? kita sebut Y

Logika realita X > Y

kan bayar parkirnya lebih mahal

Jalanan semakin macet karena penuh dengan antrian mobil berawak minimalis (2 Penumpang cukup), sehingga CO (carbonmonoksida) yang tidak berbau, pastinya semakin banyak di jalanan akibat kinerja mesin yang sedikit meleset.

Lalu dimana logika tentang Emisi diimplementasikan?

[ A.Arifianto ]

Selisih Harga BBM Indonesia

[ Harga BBM RI Mei 2008 ]

Berapa harga Minyak Tanah tanya saya? Rp.4.200,-
Berapa harga Premium? Rp. 4.500,-
Kalau Solar? Rp. 4.300,-
Kalau begitu tolong lihat harga minyak di Amerika/US dibawah ini

Silakan kalkulasi berapa negara merugi jika, pada tahun 2004 di Blueprint PEN (Pengembangan Energi Nasional) dalam satu hari Negara mengimpor 487.000 Barel.

Dengan pertumbuhan iklim investasi dan penjualan produk kendaraan bermotor, bukan hanya kendaraan roda dua, maka secara logika sederhana kebutuhan akan BBM meningkat drastis.

Jikalau begitu bagaimana dengan kebijakan Pemerintah menaikkan harga BBM?

[ A.Arifianto ]

Cek Harga Minyak Terbaru

Energi Indonesia Blog menyediakan pemantauan Harga Minyak Dunia terbaru, silakan melihat panel sebelah kiri.
Pantau terus harga Minyak Dunia di Blog ini.

Wednesday, May 7, 2008

Harga BBM akan Naik Terbatas

[ Republika ]

Subsidi BBM hanya untuk warga tak mampu.

JAKARTA--Pemerintah akan menaikkan harga bahan bakar minyak (BBM) bersubsidi secara terbatas. Pengumuman kenaikan itu akan diputuskan bersamaan dengan program kompensasi bagi masyarakat yang paling rawan terdampak kebijakan tersebut.

''Melihat situasi sekarang ini, pemerintah menyiapkan suatu kebijakan dengan tujuan untuk mengamankan APBN 2008-2009 dengan fokus pada subsidi BBM dan listrik,'' kata Menko Perekonomian, Boediono, usai rapat terbatas di Kantor Presiden, Senin (5/4).

Paket mekanisme penghematan energi dan konsumsi BBM yang ada saat ini, seperti konversi minyak tanah ke elpiji, pengenaan tarif insentif disinsentif, dan kartu kendali minyak tanah, dirasa belum cukup. Demikian pula, dengan rencana penerapan smart card.

Karena itu, perlu pelaksanaan dua elemen tambahan yang saling terkait. ''Elemen itu adalah kenaikan BBM bersubsidi secara terbatas yang masih bisa ditanggung masyarakat, sekaligus memberikan kompensasi kepada mereka yang berpenghasilan rendah dan miskin,'' papar Boediono.

Berapa besaran kenaikan dan kapan mulai berlaku, Boediono enggan membeberkan dengan dalih masih dibahas teknisnya. ''Kita tak bisa sampaikan (kenaikannya) kapan, tapi arahnya ke sana.''

Menkeu, Sri Mulyani, menjanjikan kenaikan itu diumumkan tak lama lagi agar tidak memperpanjang ketidakpastian. Pemerintah, lanjut Menkeu, justru ingin memberi sinyal bahwa subsidi hanya untuk warga tak mampu dengan menaikkan harga BBM secara terbatas.

''Ini penting agar seluruh pelaku ekonomi melihat APBN kita memiliki kepastian.'' Menkeu juga menegaskan bahwa kisaran kenaikan BBM masih bisa ditanggung masyarakat dan pelaku ekonomi.

Kenaikan harga BBM itu, jelas Menneg PPN/Kepala Bappenas, Paskah Suzetta, terkait langsung dengan program kompensasi. ''Itu hanya realokasi,'' katanya.

Pemerintah perlu waktu sebelum mengumumkan, kata Paskah, selain untuk mendapatkan perhitungan yang tepat, juga perlu berkonsultasi dengan DPR. ''Masyarakat juga dipersiapkan menghadapi kenaikan tersebut.''

Mengantisipasi kenaikan harga BBM itu, Sekretaris Utama Bappenas, Syahrial Loetan, menjelaskan pemerintah akan mengamankan 19,1 juta keluarga atau sekitar 50 juta jiwa (16-17 persen) penduduk miskin melalui program bantuan langsung tunai (BLT).

Namun, BLT itu akan diberikan selektif, hanya kepada mereka yang benar-benar membutuhkan. ''Yang diberi adalah mereka yang sudah tak bisa lagi dikasih pancing.''

Presiden minta dukungan
Sebelumnya, saat jamuan makan siang dengan pimpinan media massa, Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono meminta dukungan semua pihak untuk bersama mengatasi krisis dan masalah yang sedang dihadapi bangsa. ''Saya syukuri adalah komitmen bersama merapatkan barisan mengatasi masalah ini,'' kata Presiden.

Menurut Presiden, tahapan sekarang bukan lagi membahas harga BBM naik atau tidak, tapi bagaimana imbas kenaikan 20-30 persen terhadap berbagai komoditas, termasuk instrumen untuk melindungi masyarakat miskin dan berpenghasilan rendah.

''Itu kita hitung secara cermat. Mudah-mudahan tidak terlalu lama, sehingga bisa memberikan jaminan kepada pasar bahwa kebijakan kita tepat dan dalam waktu yang tepat. Jadi, tak sekadar menaikkan harga,'' jelas Presiden.

( wed/djo/una/evy )

Ketua DPR: Jangan Pakai Opsi Terakhir

[ Republika ]

JAKARTA--Ketua DPR, Agung Laksono, tak setuju harga BBM bersubsidi dinaikkan. Kebijakan itu dinilainya hanya membebani rakyat berpenghasilan rendah, seperti pegawai negeri dan karyawan perusahaan kecil. ''Kondisi rakyat sudah sangat parah,'' kata Agung, Senin (5/4).

Apalagi, katanya, alternatif lain masih bisa dijalankan ketimbang menaikkan harga BBM bersubsidi, seperti penjadwalan utang luar negeri. ''Sebaiknya, jangan dipakai opsi terakhir itu,'' pintanya.

Sementara itu, kenaikan harga BBM secara terbatas, menurut Ketua Komite Tetap Moneter dan Fiskal Kadin, Bambang Soesatyo, sudah diantisipasi pelaku usaha. ''Bahkan, kita tadinya berharap rapat kabinet terbatas sudah bisa memutuskan besaran kenaikan dan kapan diberlakukan, tapi ternyata masih diambangkan.''

Mengenai besarannya, Bambang menyerahkan ke pemerintah. Hanya, katanya, jika kenaikan harga BBM jauh di atas 10-30 persen, dampaknya terhadap masyarakat kelas menengah ke bawah sangat besar.

Sumber Republika di pemerintahan menyebutkan bahwa ada tiga langkah tambahan pengamanan APBN, yakni perluasan smart card, subsidi terbatas, dan kenaikan harga BBM. Smart card adalah bagian dari program penghematan konsumsi BBM bersubsidi.

Sedangkan, subsidi terbatas merupakan program penghematan BBM bersubsidi yang hanya diberikan untuk kendaraan umum dan sepeda motor. Sementara itu, untuk kenaikan harga BBM, skenario kenaikannya rata-rata 28,7 persen.

Prediksi Kenaikan Harga BBM
Premium / Rp 4.500 / Rp 6.000
Solar / Rp 4.300 / Rp 5.500
Minyak Tanah / Rp 2.000 / Rp 2.500
Kenaikan rata-rata 28,7 persen.

(evy/dsy/wed )

Wednesday, February 6, 2008

PLN says power subsidy not enough for this year

[ jakartapost ]

Ika Krismantari, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta

On the back of higher global oil prices, state power firm PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) has asked the government to raise its power subsidy for this year.

PLN president commissioner Alhilal Hamdi said Tuesday the company would ideally need Rp 70 trillion (US$7.5 billion) in subsidies this year following the change in the state budget's oil price assumption to $80 per barrel from $60 per barrel.

He said the government's plan to raise the electricity subsidy to Rp 42.6 trillion from Rp 29.8 trillion allocated previously would not only be insufficient but would also stretch the company's financial resources.

"We estimate that we will need about Rp 70 trillion this year," Alhilal said after a meeting with the House of Representatives' Commission VII for energy and mineral resources.

Should the government and the House turned down the request, Alhilal said, the company would seek loans from local lenders to help the company plug the gap in the subsidy.

"We hope we can get the subsidy revision in the middle of this year. For the time being we will use the existing subsidy allocation already approved by the House," he said.

Based on an average oil price assumption of $60 per barrel, the House has agreed to provide PLN with Rp 29.8 trillion in subsidies for the 2008 state budget.

The subsidy is needed in order for the country's households to enjoy affordable electricity rates, which are set below the normal market price.

Following the surge in global oil prices, the Finance Ministry has proposed to the House it raise the power subsidy to Rp 42.8 trillion to prevent electricity rates from soaring.

Commission member Tjatur Sapto Edi said the commission had not yet discussed PLN's subsidy proposal.

"We hope PLN can find alternative fuels to generate its power plant so as to reduce operation costs," he said.

Currently, 30 percent of PLN's power plants run on diesel fuel.

Due to soaring global oil prices last year, the subsidy for electricity was raised by 33 percent to Rp 43.4 trillion from the original allocation of Rp 32.44 trillion.

Sunday, February 3, 2008

Listrik Daur Ulang Sampah Segera Terhubung Sistem Bali

[ Antara ]

Denpasar (ANTARA News) - Energi listrik yang dihasilkan dari daur ulang sampah di proyek instalasi pengelolaan sampah terpadu (IPST) di kawasan Suwung, Denpasar, akan segera terhubung dengan jaringan sistem kelistrikan di Bali.

"Dalam perencanaan daur ulang sampah itu diharapkan mampu memasok 9,6 MW pada tahun 2009-2010, sehingga dapat menambah pasokan energi listrik di Bali," kata Kepala Badan Pengelola Kebersihan di wilayah Kota Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, dan Tabanan (Serbagita) I Made Sudarma di Denpasar, Sabtu.

Ia mengatakan, pengolahan sampah oleh PT Navigat Organic Energy Indonesia (NOEI) menjadi energi listrik itu, dalam tahap pertama diharapkan menghasilkan dua megawatt pada bulan Agustus 2008, dan kapasitasnya secara bertahap dapat ditingkatkan hingga mencapai 9,6 MW.

Pembangunan proyek instalasi pengelolaan sampah terpadu membutuhkan investasi sedikitnya 20 juta dolar AS, dirancang mampu mengelola 800 ton sampah per hari yang berasal dari sisa-sisa yang tidak berguna di empat kota/daerah yang tergabung dalam "Serbagita".

"Pihak investor baru-baru ini mendatangkan sebuah alat canggih dari Inggris untuk mendeteksi gas yang terkandung dalam sampah sebelum diolah menjadi energi listrik," ujar Sudarma.

Ia menjelaskan, alat tersebut kini masih dalam uji coba sekaligus telah mampu menghasilkan listrik hasil pengolahan sampah.

"Proyek tersebut masih dalam proses penyempurnaan dan tahap pertama diharapkan sudah beroperasi bulan Agustus 2008 dengan kapasitas dua MW," ujar Sudarma.

Pengelolaan sampah dengan menerapkan teknologi "landfill" mampu menghasilkan energi listrik, disamping menangani masalah sampah secara tuntas.

Pembangunan proyek yang digarap sejak akhir 2005 itu berada di atas lahan seluas enam hektar yang disediakan pemerintah di pinggiran kota Denpasar.

Kehadiran proyek tersebut selain mampu menghasilkan energi listrik, sekaligus mengelola sampah dengan baik, dalam upaya mewujudkan kebersihan lingkungan serta memperbaiki kondisi sekitar tempat penampungan akhir (TPA) sampah di Suwung yang selama lokasinya tercemar akibat sampah yang tidak tertangani.

I Made Sudarma menjelaskan, sampah di TPA Suwung setiap harinya bertambah rata-rata 3.000 meter kubik yang dikelola sedemikian rupa termasuk melakukan proses pemilihan sebelum diolah.

Sedangkan sampah lama dengan tumpukan yang memenuhi areal seluas 14 hektar itu, di dalamnya dipasangi pipa untuk menangkap gas methan. Sampah pada bagian permukaan ditutupi tanah, sehingga sampahnya tidak terlihat.

Dalam kurun waktu beberapa tahun, biogas diambil, sehingga sampah menjadi terdegradasi dan volume tumpukan menjadi menipis. Cairan yang keluar dari sampah selama proses degradasi akan ditampung dan dikelola dalam instalasi "water treatment". Sementara untuk sampah baru masuk ke IPST, yang sebelumnya telah dipilah terlebih dulu.

Sampah baru yang masih basah setelah dicacah dimasukkan ke dalam digester untuk menghasilkan biogas dan kompos. Sementara sampah baru kering (plastik) diolah dengan "pirolisis" dan "gassification", yakni pemanasan tinggi tanpa oksigen.

Proses tersebut menghasilkan "syntetic" gas dan selanjutnya biogas yang diperoleh dari sampah baru dan sampah lama melalui gas engine akan dikonversikan menjadi energi listrik.

Masyarakat memperoleh manfaat yang cukup besar dari pengembangan IPST, seperti memulihkan kondisi TPA Suwung yang kini penuh dengan tumpukan sampah, sekaligus menangani kebersihan yang sangat positif bagi citra pariwisata Bali.

"Pembangunan IPST merupakan salah satu wujud upaya bersama membangun `win-win solution` yang adil kepada setiap pihak, yakni pemerintah, mitra swasta dan masyarakat termasuk lingkungan," ujar Made Sudarma.(*)

OPEC Pertahankan Produksi

[ ESDM ]
Pertemuan luar biasa OPEC ke 147 di Wina telah terselenggara pada tanggal 1 Februari 2008, pada pertemuan tersebut telah diputuskan untuk mempertahankan tingkat produksinya sebesar 29,67 juta barel per hari, karena dinilai cukup memadai untuk memenuhi permintaan pada kwartal pertama tahun 2008.
''Sehubungan dengan perkembangan perekonomian dunia yang mengalami penurunan, tingkat produksi saat ini cukup memadai untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pada kuartal pertama tahun 2008'', papar siaran pers yang dirilis OPEC dalam website edisi 1 pada bulan Februari 2008. Pada pertemuan tersebut telah disepakati untuk menugaskan Setjen OPEC untuk terus memantau dengan sangat hati-hati dampak penurunan ekonomi terhadap faktor fundamental.

Secara umum pertemuan luar biasa OPEC itu juga telah memberikan penilaian bahwa selama tahun 2007 pasokan minyak mentah cukup baik. Meski terjadi gejolak pasar dalam beberapa saat, secara umum pasar minyak mentah dunia sepanjang tahun 2007 tergolong cukup stabil.

Memasuki tahun 2008, OPEC menghadapi tantangan berat untuk terus menstabilkan pasar. Penurunan ekonomi dunia diprediksikan akan semakin menekan permintaan. Oleh sebab itu dalam lima bulan ke depan, seperti pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya, permintaan rata-rata minyak dunia cenderung melemah.

Pertemuan luar biasa OPEC ke 147 berlangsung di markas OPEC di Wina, Austria yang dihadiri oleh seluruh delegasi anggota OPEC dipimpin oleh Presiden OPEC Dr. Chakib Khelil yang juga Menteri Energi dan Pertambangan Aljazair sekaligus ketua delegasi negaranya.

Pada pertemuan itu, juga dihadiri delegasi tamu dari Equador, yang dipimpin oleh Menteri Pertambangan dan Perminyakan Chiriboga Zambrano. Selain menghadiri pertemuan tersebut, delegasi Equador juga dijamu dengan sebuah diskusi bisnis minyak dunia.

Sehubungan dengan meninggalnya mantan Presiden Indonesia Soeharto, seluruh delegasi pada pertemuan tersebut, menyampaikan ucapan belasungkawa kepada pemerintah serta seluruh masyarakat Indonesia.

Pada pertemuan tersebut juga disampaikan ucapan terima kasih kepada pemerintah Austria atas terselenggaranya acara tersebut dengan lancar.

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Indonesia to switch 10 pct petroleum to biofuel

[ reuters ]

By Fitri Wulandari and Naveen Thukral

JAKARTA (Reuters) - Indonesia plans to substitute around 10 percent of its fossil fuel transport consumption with biofuel products by 2010, a senior government official said on Monday.

The resource-rich tropical nation has been pushing the use of biofuels made from various resources such as palm oil, sugar cane and cassava to cut the use of costly petroleum products.

The move aims at easing burden of hefty subsidy on petroleum products without raising the price of subsidized fuel sold on domestic market.

"We can't increase prices of subsidized fuel as it will hurt consumers. But we may be able to cut consumption and replace it with biofuel," Evita Legowo, secretary at the National Biofuel Development Team said at the Reuters Global Agriculture and Biofuel Summit.

By 2010, biofuel products are expected to account for 3.8 million kilolitres of total petroleum consumption for transportation at estimated 34.75 million kilolitres.

Indonesia is Asia Pacific's only OPEC member but it is one of the smallest producers in terms of production and relies on fuel imports as it has failed to tap new oilfields fast enough.

The country has to spend billions of dollars on oil subsidies and importing oil products.

For that, the government plans to increase bioethanol blend in gasoline to 5 percent by 2010 from 3 percent, using cassava and cane molasses--thick syrup produced from sugar cane during the sugar extraction process--as feedstock, she said.

Production capacity for bioethanol using both cassava and cane molasses is expected to reach 3.77 million kilolitres per year, from 135,000 kilolitres per year by the end of December 2007, data from the biofuel team showed.

As for biodiesel, Legowo said the government may keep the biodiesel blend in diesel oil at 2.5 percent due to soaring palm oil prices while trying to boost output of jatropha, a non-edible oil that grows in arid land and needs little care.

"Biodiesel blend will stay at 2.5 percent ... maybe less because we are still waiting for jatropha that we planted last year," Legowo said.

Indonesian state-owned oil firm Pertamina which retails biodiesel at home, has cut the biodiesel blend in diesel fuel to 2.5 percent as rising palm oil prices and lack of incentives cut margins.

Malaysian crude palm oil futures hit a record on Monday with the benchmark March contract KPOH8 ending at 3,414 ringgit a tonne after hitting 3,420 ringgit, surpassing a high of 3,280 ringgit reached on Friday.

Palm oil prices, up nearly 12 percent since the start of the year, were also supported by prospects of Malaysia introducing palm oil-blended diesel at home this year and Indonesia's plans to double biodiesel production.

There are also plans for 12 special biofuel zones by 2010 where investors could develop an integrated biofuel industry, if approved by the government, said Legowo.

Indonesia is developing other raw materials to ensure feedstock supplies for biodiesel and biofuel production. It plans to plant 5.25 million hectares of unused land with palm oil, jatropha, sugar cane and cassava by 2010.

By that time, biofuel products will account for 2 percent of the country's total energy mix of 5.29 million kilolitres.

(Editing by Peter Blackburn)